A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

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Kunigunde Kreuzerin
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A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin » Mon Dec 30, 2013 5:35 am

What a great day! I discovered a book by the German scholar and pastor Andreas Bedenbender "Frohe Botschaft am Abgrund: das Markusevangelium und der Jüdische Krieg" (Good news at the edge of precipice: the Gospel of Mark and the Jewish War), Leipzig, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2013

The book seems to be damn interesting. I thought it would be impossible that such books could be written currently in Germany. He argues for an allegorized interpretation of the gospel of mark. The table of contents can be seen here (pdf and German).

I will read the book and then write something about it.

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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by stephan happy huller » Mon Dec 30, 2013 4:22 pm

Lesen Sie dazu auch den Beitrag von Hermann Raschke Werkstatt des Markus-Evangelisten (1923)
Everyone loves the happy times

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DCHindley
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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by DCHindley » Mon Dec 30, 2013 7:01 pm

What does the title suggest?

That the author of the gospel of Mark was turned the reports about the Jewish War, which I have to assume were considered "bad news" to Gentiles who had attached themselves to Jewish messianic hopes, into a form good news that God's will had not been rebellion at all, but redemption? If so, I could see that.

Could you provide a synopsis?

DCH
Kunigunde Kreuzerin wrote:What a great day! I discovered a book by the German scholar and pastor Andreas Bedenbender "Frohe Botschaft am Abgrund: das Markusevangelium und der Jüdische Krieg" (Good news at the edge of precipice: the Gospel of Mark and the Jewish War), Leipzig, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2013

The book seems to be damn interesting. I thought it would be impossible that such books could be written currently in Germany. He argues for an allegorized interpretation of the gospel of mark. The table of contents can be seen here (pdf and German).

I will read the book and then write something about it.

Kunigunde Kreuzerin
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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin » Tue Dec 31, 2013 6:21 am

The point is that the current German NT scholars are mainly influenced by historical criticism and their works are a little bit boring to me. Okay we have Detering, but he is not in the game. The "secret" popular hero of the scholars is Klaus Berger, a very conservative theologian. He sold most of the books. A successor of Wrede and Bultmann is not yet in sight. The main principle is: In the gospels we find the historical Jesus clearly!

The book by Bedenbender is published in Leipzig (my hometown). I like the publishing house, but it is not very important for scholars.

I can see a few points from the table of contents:

- the proclamation of the Roman centurion "Truly this man was the Son of God!" is not to be understood as a Christian confession
- there is a context of healing of the blind and Peter's confession
- the escape of the spirit during the crucifixion
- Capernaum and Bethsaida in the gospel of Mark are not real historical places, but to be understood as metaphors

Thats important steps for current German scholarship. In the next week I still read Wrede, but then ...

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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by DCHindley » Tue Dec 31, 2013 10:41 pm

For those wondering what the German TOC says, I scanned the PDF to Word (in German) and processed it through MS Translate, to produce the following. I cannot guarantee great accuracy and anyone should feel free to do a better job of it if they can or correct obvious mistakes. It seems like a cross between the convoluted thinking of Robert Eisler's Messiah Jesus and John the Baptist (1931) and the utopian hopefulness of Karl Kautsky's Foundations of Christianity (1908). Throw in some S G F Brandon Jesus and the Zealots for good measure. On the other hand, it is refreshing to see someone attack the matter of the influence of the Jewish war on the formation of Christianity, as I think most scholars want to keep wide of the subject because Christianity becomes merely the effect of a cause rather than a breath of fresh air that sets the truth of the Christian message apart from mere syncretism. [WTF does all that mean?? :confusedsmiley: ]

Table of contents

Part I. The Gospel of mark as a polyphonic composition

Chapter 1. A concise development of the basic theory.... 3
1.1 The Gospel of mark and the Jewish war... 3
1.1.1 The traditional point of view: the Jewish war as an event, with the "Gospel of mark" without further ado, it is compatible... 4
1.1.2. The Jewish war as a social disaster, the (also) Christian members affected: Joel Marcus and Chad Myers... 5
1.1.3. The Jewish war like fundamental vibration Christian certainties... 6
1.1.4. Stumbling blocks in the Gospel of mark: the language and perplexity of the disciples... 7
1.1.5. The Gospel of mark, read in the light of the Jewish War.... 10
Understanding the terminology: the Gospel of mark as "christian" text; reading "christian" as "christians of the first century." ...11
1.2 The crucifixion of Jesus as implicit history des Jewish War... 16
1.2.1. The Thesis ... 16
1.2.2. To the establishment of an allegorical interpretation the Gospel of mark... 17
a) Notes to the terminology: Metaphor, Symbol, Allegory and Allegorical 18
b) The fight of the modern interpretation of the Bible against the allegorical and the resurgence of allegorical interpretations...25
c) The allegorical potential of the Gospel of mark...26
d) Evidence for the existence of a layer of allegorical meaning in Mark's Gospel...30
1.2.3. The Jewish war Pretext of the Gospel of mark... 31
a) The recognizable in the Gospel of the allegorical references to the Jewish war...31
b) The impact of allegorical war reference to the meaning of the Gospel of mark...34
c) The passion of Jesus as a real allegorically-world history...33
1.3 The performance of the process selected by Markus... 36
1.3.1. The exemplary compression of events... 36
1.3.2. The poetic alienation of events... 41
Excursus a): the destruction of Jerusalem in the representation of Pagan and Roman, early Jewish and early Christian sources...41
Excursus b): the synoptic Gospels as examples of a "typical Jewish" reception of the destruction of Jerusalem...49
1.4. The Gospel of mark in dispute with others Christian interpretations of the destruction of Jerusalem... 52
1.4.1. The false witnesses in the process of Jesus (Mk 14:56-59)... 52
1.4.2. The commitment of demons... 56
1.4.3. The Beelzebul accusation (Mk 3:22-30)... 57
1.5 Read the Gospel from its beginning here: a font of protection for Israel... 64
1.6 Read the Gospel of mark from his end: on a clarification of Christological and Self-assurance of targeting text... 66
1.7 Other topics of the Gospel... 69
1.8 To the discussion about the genre of Gospel... 69
1.9 Checklist ... 70

Chapter 2. Readers and non-readers ... 72
2.1 For which target group was the text written?... 72
2.1.1. The "markan community" as a Phantasm of research... 72
2.1.2. The ecumenism of the Apostle successor... 74
2.2 A heterogeneous readership... 75
2.2.1. Minimal average competent, informed and ideal reader. The proper names of the Gospel of mark. . 76
Digression: Surreal elements in the language world of the Gospel of mark 85
2.2.2. Judeo and Gentile Christian readers... 89
2.2.3. To the possibility of an interpretatio simul Biblica et hellenistica... 91
2.2.4. The Lector malevolens: the pagan trustee the Roman State... 94
2.2.5. The James-Pharisaic lector incurvatus in se ipsum I... 98
2.2.6. On the sense of theologia crucis zweifelnde Lector incurvatus in se ipsum II ... 106
2.2.7 God ... 107
2.3 Characteristic non-readers of the Gospel... 109
2.3.1. The non Lector malevolens as a representative of demonic Christology... 109
2.3.2. Christian zealots... 111
2.3.3. The non Lector feminei generis (seu non lectrix) ... 112

Chapter 3. tradition and subversion. The recording of Jesus traditions before Mark. ... 116
3.1. Preliminaries ... 116
3.2. The disciple of incomprehension, as an expression of the literary strategy of evangelist... 117
3.3. The parabolai the Gospel of mark... 119
3.3.1. Of the meaning of the speech en parabolais; (Mk 4:10; 13.21-25, 33f.) ... 119
3.3.2. The meaning of each parabolai...127
a) The answer of Jesus to the Beelzebul charge (Mk 3:23-27)...128
b) The mystery parable of the four acre (Mk 4:1-9:14-20)...128
c) The mystery parable of the mustard seed (Mk 4:30-32)...131
d) The information about clean and unclean (Mk 7:14-23)...132
e) The mystery parable of the wicked husbandmen (Mk 12:1-12)...142
f) The mystery parable of the fig tree (Mk 13:28f.)...145
3.3.3. Extra: the stories of the doorkeeper (Mk 13:34-37) and from the self awake seed (Mk 4:26-29) send... 147
3.4 Jesus as destroyer of the Temple - a misunderstanding... 150
3.5 Conditions for the possibility of the traditional Jesus tradition through innovation to complement... 151
3.6. Extra: the reinterpretation of John of the Baptist... 152

Chapter 4. The Gospel of mark - a Jewish text?... 153

Chapter 5. conjectures about Markus... 159

Part II. topography of terror. Observations on selected locations of the Gospel of mark

Chapter 6. No place, nowhere. The experience of the destruction of the temple as "sitz im Leben" of the Gospel of mark... 165
6.1. Topos and erēmos topos; in the Gospel of mark... 165
6.1.1. The Problem ... 165
6.1.2. The erēmos topos in der LXX... 169
6.2. The meeting of topos and members of the Word family *erēm- in Greek-speaking literature of Judaism (including the NT)... 171
6.2.1. The "intertestamental" literature...171
a) The Paraleipomena Jeremiou [Things omitted from Jeremaiah]...172
b) Additional: 4 Ezra...173
6.2.2. Philo of Alexandria... 174
6.2.3. Flavius Josephus... 174
6.2.4. The other writings of the NT... 176
a) "On the Holy place "(Mt 24) ...176
b) Escape the woman to the place in the desert (Rev 12:6, 14)...177
6.3. Further considerations for the Gospel... 178
6.3.1. The absent place... 178
6.3.2. The erēmos topos as a disorder in the structure of the text... 180
a) Mk 1:35 ...180
b) Mk 1:45 and 6:31 (f). ...182
6.3.3. The Gospel in the desert... 187
6.4. Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 190

Chapter 7. Golgotha - the "place of a skull" Comment by Mk 15:33-39 ... 191
7.1. The Text .................................................................................................. 191
7.2. "This man was son of God." The obituary of the Centurion (V 39)... 191
7.2.1. Of the Centurion as a Christian confessor: an acoustic illusion... 191
a) The meaning of the phrase remains open in a crucial point...192
b) "This one is son of God" is unprecedented and not a Christian commitment ...194
c) The commitment of the demons...194
7.2.2. Of the Centurion Roman soldier... 195
7.2.3. Digression: the role of Captain in Matthew and Luke... 196
7.2.4. Digression: the suicide of the executioner in the rabbinic literature... 198
7.2.5. "... the one standing by - opposite him." The Centurion as opponent of Jesus (and Temple)... 200
7.3. Curtain and darkness. The circumstances of the death of Jesus... 203
7.3.1. The ripping curtain (V. 38)... 203
a) Did Mark welcome the destruction of the Temple in any sense?...203
b) Temple curtain and Temple destruction ...205
c) Temple and Cosmos...206
7.3.2. The darkness (V. 33). ...207
7.3.3. The circumstances of the death of Jesus in the Gospel of mark and the sign of the destruction of the Temple in Josephus... 208
7.4. Verses 34-37... 209
7.4.1 "My God, my God..." (V. 34)... 210
7.4.2. Elijah (V. 35 f.) 211
7.4.3 (V. 36) wine vinegar... 212
7.4.4. The Death of Jesus (V. 37) ... 213
a) Popping Bubbles [sobering up]...213 :cheers:
b) The death of Jesus in Luke and John...214
c) The death of R. Chanina b. Teradions in the Talmud and the death of Jesus ben Ananias in Josephus ...214
7-5- Conclusion ... 215

Chapter 8. If the storm is and remains the terror. "Sea of Galilee"... 216
8.1 The "sea" in the Bible...216
8.1.1 Digression: the "sea" and the "small world" of Galilee... 218
8.2. Of the sea of Galilee in the Jewish war... 219
8.3. The storm Stilling (Mk 4:35-5.1)... 222
Digression: of the pillows of Jesus 228
8.4. Of the sea change (Mark 6:45-53)... 231
8.4.1. The Text... 231
8.4.2. Sea change, storm control and Crossing of the sea of reeds... 231
8.4.3. The Sovereignty of Jesus......................................................................... 233
8.4.4. The reaction of the disciples... 236
8.4.5 The pressed upon disciples travel to Bethsaida (Mark 6:45); "Fishers of men"(Mk 1:17)... 238
8.4.6 Digression: Was the Gospel of mark for people who immediately were affected by the impact the war? ... 240
8.4.7 Imprudent and hardening of the heart of the Disciple (Mk 6:52) ... 241
8.4.8 Digression: the ethical dimension the Gospel of mark... 243
8.4.9. Driving ahead and following... 245
8.4.10. Of Galilee (Mk 6:53-56)... 245
8.5 Conclusion ... 247

Chapter 9 Bethsaida and Caesarea Philippi in Mk 8 ... 249
9.1 The Text Mk 8:22-33 ... 249
9.2. The response of Jesus to Peter's commitment in Mk 8:30.... 250
9.3 What means: "the son of man must suffer much and be killed... " (Mk 8:31)?...252
9.3.1. The "son of man " 252
9.3.2. "must suffer much and ... be killed..." 256
9.3.3. The first announcement of the suffering and the parable by the wicked husbandmen (Mk 12:1-11)... 258
9.3.4. The dispersion of the sheep (Mk 14:27)... 261
9.3.5 The inner necessity of the markan theologia crucis... 261
9.4 The dispute between Peter and Jesus in Mk 8:32f... 265
9.5. The context of blind healing and Peter's confession.. 266
9.5.1. The blind healing as interpretation of the confession of Peter... 266
Digression: The healing of blind of Bethsaida in the synoptic comparison ..268
9.5.2 Outside the village of Bethsaida - in the villages at Caesarea Philippi... 269
9.6.3 Bethsaida and Caesarea Philippi ... 270
9.6 Caesarea Philippi and confronting the Flavians - noticeable in Mark's Gospel a note on the history of research... 274
9.7. Conclusion ... 277

Part III. Between the Romans and the zealots

Chapter 10. The Gospel of mark and Rome ... 281
10.1. A Rome-friendly Gospel?... 281
10.1.1. The Latinisms of the Gospel... 281
10.1.2. Mark and Rome. An overview... 287
a) Pilatus, the Centurion and the soldiers...287
b) Other aspects...288
10.2. Aims by the mark's Gospel to readers, (Propaganda-)Success of Vespasian were impressed? 289
10.3. Jesus way to Golgotha in the opposite to the Triumphal procession of the Roman Emperor... 295

Chapter 11. The Gospel of mark and the zealots... 298
11.1 Zealots, "predator" and Sicarii. ...298
11.2. The ratio of the zealots to the biblical tradition, Jewish history and the temple... 299
11.3. Zealots and Christians... 300
11.4. The Gospel of mark and the zealots. Considerations.... 302
11.5 With the zealots in the dispute about the figures of the Bible. Elijah and David in the Gospel... 303
11.5.1 "He calls Elijah "(Mk 15.35)...303
11.5.2 "the coming Kingdom of our father David". (Mk 11:10) ... 306
Digression: Jesus and Dionysus ...311
11.6. With the zealots in the dispute about the history of Israel. Simon Maccabee in Mark's Gospel... 325
11.6.1 "John and Alexander" (Acts 4:6): two Hasmoneans in Acts... 326
11.6.2 "Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and the Rufus "(Mk 15:21)...329
11.6.3. Simon Maccabee and Alexander Jannai... 330
11.6.4. Tiberius Alexander... 332
11.6.5. Rufus, the Red... 333
11.6.6. Conclusion.... 335
11.7. With the zealots in the dispute about the promises of the prophets. The cleansing of the temple and the meaning of item 14:21 b... 337
11.8. In solidarity with the zealots I: Crucified between two "Robbers" (Mk 15:27)...338
11.9 In solidarity with the zealots II: "Who during the uprising with the insurgents, had committed a murder, and were imprisoned "(Mk 15:7)...» 342
11.9.1. Of Barabbas, the Messiah in another form... 342
11.9.2. Jesus Barabbas in Matthew... 347
11.10. Two zealots in the twelve circle of the Apostles: Simon The Cananaean and Judas Iscariot... 348
11.10.1. Simon The Cananaean ... 348
11.10.2 Judas Iskariot ... 349
11.10.3. Simon and Judas: members of the quorum of twelve, but no Christians... 354
Digression: The sword trick of standing here (Mk 14:47-50) ...356
11.10.4 The twelve circle of the Apostles as a group by Jesus followers and as a representative of Israel... 358

Chapter 12. Various attempts, the Gospel of mark to date in relation to the Jewish war... 363
12.1 Mk 15:38: the tearing of the temple curtain... 363
12.2. Mk 13:2: "not should here be left stone upon stone, which will not torn down!"... 364
12.3. Mk 13:14-18: "when you see the monster of destruction sit where he's not allowed "... 367
12.3.1. Verse 14... 368
a) The "monster of destruction"...368
b) "Let the reader understand" .371
c) Escape in the mountains...371
d) "In Judea (are)"...372
12.3.2 Verses 15-18... 374
"Pray that it does not happen in winter "(V. 18). 374
12.4. Mk 13:24: "in those days, after that tribulation " 375
12.5 Is the Driveing of the Demon Legion into the herd of pigs (Mark 5:1-20) a play on the Legio X Fretensis? ... 376
12.5.1. The basic thesis: Gerd Theissen 1974 and 1989... 376
12.5.2. Two newer extensions: Matthias Klinghardt 2007 and Markus Lau 2007... 379
12.6 Refers to the Gospel of mark on the rise of the Flavian?... 382
12.7 "Is it allowed... to kill on the Sabbath" (Mk 3:4) - a criticism of the behavior of the insurgents? ...383
12.8. A hermeneutical argument for a drafting the Gospel of mark before the destruction of the temple... 384
12.9. Interim Conclusion... 385
12.10 Passages, the emergence of the Gospel of mark not before the year 68 A.D. suggests... 385
12.11. consequences for a Christological-political Interpretation of the Gospel of mark... 386

Chapter 13 the people, fight of the gods. The Jewish war as ideological battleground... 388
13.1 Einleitung... 388
13.2. The ideological background of the Jewish war... 391
13.2.1. The notions of the insurgents... 391
a) The Charismatics in the heart of the anti-Roman fight...391
b) Confidence in the temple...395
13.2.2. The ancient Oracle struggle... 397
13.2.3. The "ambiguous prophecy"...399
13.3. A tale of two temples: the destruction of the Temple of Jupiter in Rome and the fire in the Temple of Jerusalem... 402
13.4 The sign of the destruction of the temple in Tacitus, Josephus and the Talmud... 405
13.4.1. The Text... 405
a) The sign according to Tacitus...403
b) The sign according to Josephus...403
c) The sign after bYoma 39b...406
13.4.2 Comparison and evaluation... 407
a) The healing characters in the rebellious Jerusalem...408
b) The interpretatio Romana...408
c) Josephus...409
d) The Rabbinic and early Jewish literature...410
13.4.3 Conclusion..... 411

Chapter 14. "at the valley in the shadow of death" The New Testament locations Capernaum, Bethsaida and Chorazin as poetic references to the Roman Empire.... 413
14.1. Lives for Satan in Capernaum? Three seemingly absurd woe shouts of Jesus in Mt 11 and Lk 10...413
14.1.1 By which acts of Jesus is the speech?... 413
14.1.2. What is the reason for the cries of woe?... 416
14.1.3 Why the sharpness in the sound, When it comes to Capernaum?... 416
14.1.4. What have to find three Galilean places in Lk 10?... 417
14.2. "Capernaum," "Bethsaida" and "Chorazin" as ciphers for Rome. ...418
14.2.1 Capernaum in the Gospels... 421
a) The Gospel of Luke...421
b) The Gospel of Mark ...425
c) The Gospel of Matthew...427
d) Conclusion for the synoptic Gospels; the name "Capernaum"... 430
e) The Gospel of John: Capernaum and (the sea of) Tiberias... 431
14.2.2 Bethsaida in the Gospels... 438
14.2.3. Chorazin in Luke and Matthew... 440
14.3. Why are, for the Matthean Jesus, Chorazin, Bethsaida and Capernaum the cities, "in which the most his deeds were done" (Mt 11:20). ... 443
14.4. Summary and Outlook... 444

Chapter 15. The healing of the paralytic (Mk 2:1-12) ... 447
15.1. The Text .... 447
15.2. Interpretation .... 448
15.2.1. The paralytic, the four winners and the people... 448
a) The paralytic...448
b) "worn by fours "(V. 3) ...450.
c) The people who themselves do "not touch" days (V. 1) .452
d) "When Jesus saw their faith "(V. 5) ».453
15.2.2 The scribes and the House... 454
a) Accused the scribes 454
b) "in the House "(V. 1) 455
15.2.3. The forgiveness of sin and healing... 457
a) "Child, be forgiven your sins "(V. 5) ...457 ».
b) "What is easier:...? So you see that the son of man has authority on Earth to forgive sins..." (V. 9f.) ...460
c) "Such we have never seen!" (V. 12)...462
d) Extra: "so all Deconstructing fell "(V. 12). 463
15.2.4. Dug up and uncovered roof, or: The Gospel of mark as Deconstruction of Christian theology... 465
a) The break-up of the House of the municipality and the collapse of the temple 466
b) The House as a tomb 468
15.2.5. To the rhetorical strategy of the Evangelist... 470
15.3 Extra: the interpretations of Karel Hanhart und Brian J. Incigneri ... 471
15.4. Review: A comparison with the Healing of the paralytic in Mt 9... 473

Summary and Outlook...
1 Question and approach... 477
2 The working hypotheses to verify... 478
3 Criteria for assessing the present interpretation... 480
4 Concordance work as means of control... 482
5 A passage through the thesis... 483
6 The meaning of the results... 485
7 Plea for a materialistic allegorical Interpretation of the Gospel of mark... 488

Annex

Explanatory notes on the translation of the Gospel of mark ... 493
Notes to the citation and the job register... 498
Bibliography.... 499
I Language resource... 499
II. Atlanten .... 500
III. Quellen... 501
IV. Literature of the Bible and their environment... 507
V. Literature to pagan texts of antiquity, Rabbinic and synagogue texts as well as the ratio of early Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism. 522
VI. Sonstige Literatur ... 523
Bodies register ... 524
Author register 547

dch :whistling:

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DCHindley
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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by DCHindley » Wed Jan 01, 2014 3:23 pm

There is a web page describing Bedenbender's thesis here:
http://www.eva-leipzig.de/product_info. ... grund.html

The following is a summary based on the Google Translation of that web page, although I had to cut and paste and make some tweaks to capture what I think the author's point is.
Google Translate wrote:Andreas Bedenbender's lucid study makes an attempt to understand the Gospel of Mark as a crisis document - A poetic response to the Jewish War, the devastation of the Galilee and the destruction of Jerusalem.

For Judaism, the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE came as a shock. And a shock it must have been so for the Christians of time. What had happened in 70 threatened to refute the good news of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
Already a few generations later the fathers of the Church took the fall of the Temple as another proof of the Christian truth [as in supercessionism?].

Yet in the gospels of the New Testament, Especially in the Gospel of Mark, we find evidence for just the opposite approach. Whatever unbroken proclaiming of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, possible before the Jewish war was no longer possible after the fall of Jerusalem, at least not for the author of [the gospel of Mark].

Mark Decided to take the passion of Jesus as the focus of his proclamation of the Gospel. Given the cruelty of what happens here to Jesus, this Seems to be odd. But it makes sense as soon as we realize did the Markan version of the crucifixion of Jesus mirrors what had happened to many Jews falling on the siege of Jerusalem.
I can sympathize with the idea that the gruesomeness of the war (from both sides) could have forced a reinterpretation of the significance of Jesus for early Christian theology. He says "the Gospel of mark [is a] 'christian' text; though reading 'christian' as 'christians of the first century'." In other words, we can not assume that 1st century Christianity can automatically be equated with 2nd century Christianity. It had taken a pretty radical turn.

DCH :popcorn:

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Re: A. Bedenbender "Good news at the edge of precipice"

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin » Tue Jan 07, 2014 2:35 pm

I haven't finished yet the book but let's start with a nice quote :mrgreen:
It looks like Mark was too successful in the attempt, the Jesus story to tell subversive. The Church rejected his message not because they did not understand. Convinced to have to deal with a document of orthodox theology, the Gospel of Mark was appreciated and even canonized at the end - declared the guiding principle of orthodoxy. Human error, divine providence.

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